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SOLON Energy GmbH

The SOLON Energy GmbH (formerly SOLON SE) was a German solar energy company based in Berlin.

Company Profile

In addition to the production of solar modules in the subsidiaries Solon Photovoltaik GmbH in Berlin and Solon Nord GmbH in Greifswald , the company had more daughters in Italy (Solon SpA, formerly SE Project srl, solar modules), USA (Solon Corporation, solar panels), and Freiburg (Solon Investments GmbH, planning of solar large power plants). In 2009, Solon had a production capacity for solar modules (PV modules) of 435 Megawatt peak (MWp) (2008: 450 MWp; 2007: 210 MWp; 2006: 130 MWp) and with a total production of 132 MWp (2008: 176 MWp; 2007: 118 MWp; 2006: 84 MWp), the Group has continued to assert itself as one of the largest solar module manufacturers in Germany and Europe. The Group employed 2009, approximately 901 employees and reported 2009 global revenues of € 354.4 million and a net profit of € -143.4 million (2008: € 30.9 million; 2007: € 503.1 million and € 22.2 million; 2006: € 346.4 million and € 14.4 million).

History

Creation, expansion

The manufacturers of solar modules and provider of turnkey solar large power plants was on 27 November 1996 by Saleh El-Khatib , Birgit Flore , John Grosse Boymann , Paul Grunow , Stefan Krauter , Alexander Voigt and Wuseltronik GbR research and development ( Reiner Lemoine , Stefan Fütterer , Peter Fischer, Martin Sauter , Jürgen Hiller ), and it began in 1998 on the stock market . Thus Solon AG was the first listed company for solar technology in Germany. It was on 20 March 2006 to 18 September 2009 at the TecDAX with the ISIN : DE0007471195 listed and since 2007 also in ÖkoDAX .

Solon built about 80 percent of on old and new federal buildings with the move of the federal government erected to Berlin solar systems.

On 1 September 2006, the photovoltaic power plant went on Good Erlasee in Arnstein in operation. In 2006, there around 14,000 MWh of electricity produced.

In December 2007, the Solon AG acquired a further stake in the Austrian solar cell manufacturer Blue Chip Energy GmbH. [3]

On 8 December 2008, the converted Solon AG für Solartechnik into a European Company SE order. [4]

On 15 December 2008. Solon SE took over the Italian Estelux srl and planned to build a plant for the production of solar silicon in the northern Italian Ferrara .

Shrinkage

In 2010, the Solon SE separated from its production subsidiary Solon Hilber Technologie GmbH in Steinach am Brenner . Here, in recent years very successfully the Solon Mover produced - a biaxially-tracking photovoltaic system for large-scale photovoltaic power plants, which as a pioneer product prepared the market for tracking systems then.

Also, the Solon SE isolated in 2010 from a subsidiary Solon Inverters AG in Uznach in Switzerland. Here inverters have been developed in recent years.

Bankruptcy 

December 13, 2011 Solon requested the opening of insolvency proceedings. [5] For the subsidiaries SOLON PV GmbH, SOLON Nord GmbH and SOLON Investments GmbH has also made ​​an application for insolvency. [6]

Acquisition

On March 6, 2012 acquired Microsol International LL FZE (India, based in the United Arab Emirates) core components of SOLON SE and established the SOLON Energy GmbH. The new company had the functions of a holding company with a subsidiary in Berlin (SOLON Modules GmbH) and sister companies in the US (SOLON Corporation) and Italy (SOLON SpA). [7]

At Intersolar 2012 in Munich, SOLON Energy GmbH presented as "one of the first" an energy storage system for single-family homes. [8] [9] For the mounting system SOLquick the company received at the fair a Intersolar Award. [10]

Production adjustment, Renewed Bankruptcy

From September 2013, the production at the Berlin location was set. [11]

On 6 March 2014, the company announced that the headquarters in Berlin is closed. 230 points are eliminated thereby. The headquarters of the Solon Group is in the United Arab Emirates postponed. [12]

In September 2014 presented by Solon Energy GmbH and Solon Modules GmbH for bankruptcy. [13]

Restructuring of Solon International

A realignment of the divisions and structures the Solon Group moved its headquarters in the UAE. Microsol International LL FZE now operates as Solon International LL FZE and manufactures solar modules (4 production lines) and solar cells (2 production lines) inFujairah (UAE). [ 14] , [15]

Furthermore, also in Germany at the site Greifswald solar modules, produced here in, inter alia, special solutions and SOLfixx SOLbond.

The solar modules is done in Northern Europe on the SOLON SpA branch Germany in Berlin . For Southern Europe sales from done Carmignano di Brenta Padova (Italy).

Next, the project business, and the area is Operation & Maintenance (O & M) operated on the relevant European subsidiaries.

 



International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency ( English International Energy Agency , shortly IEA ) is a platform for cooperation in the field of research, development, launch and application of energy technologies . In addition, the features Agency on strategic oil reserves , which they in the oil market can intervene. [1] [2]

It was founded by 16 industrialized nations for common action against the former oil crisis . On November 15, 1974, the International Energy Agency has been as an autonomous unit of the OECD headquartered in Paris built. [3] It is considered traditionally atom friendly. [4] [5] [6] are important publications of the IEA, inter alia, the annual "Key Energy Statistics "and the" World Energy Outlook ", the" Bible of the energy industry ". [7] chief economist is Fatih Birol.

Major items

Since 2007, the IEA warned repeatedly increasingly pronounced scarcity trends in the international oil markets. Given increasing demand and decreasing flow rate is a risk of an imminent oil shortage - a scenario that particular trailers of peak oil has long been expected theory. The IEA notes that global oil production capacity decline and the oil reserves are expected to be greatly reduced. Almost half of the demand would have to be covered in the future on new oilfields because dry up existing reserves gradually. The stronger global oil demand will be in a boom - especially in the US, China and India - the sooner could occur and slow down the global economic growth of congestion. All speak concerning a "crisis Offer" out whereby the prices could rise to "record level". An oil price of up to 200 dollars a barrel is possible. OPEC therefore recommended u. A. A stronger oil production by OPEC and more energy efficiency . [8] [9]

The former IEA director Nubuo Tanaka pointed to an energy conference in London in late October 2007 very concerned in view of future oil supply security: "Despite five years of high oil prices, market tightness wants Actually increase from 2009. New capacity additions will not keep up with declines at current fields and the projected increase in demand " (the last five years high oil prices despite will actually increase the market shortage [of oil] from 2009 onwards. New reserve additions are expected with the decline in production in the currently exploited oil fields and the increase in demand not keeping pace). [10]

In its World Energy Outlook 2008 , the IEA described the conventional fuels such as oil and coal for the first time as "clearly unsustainable" from both an environmental and an economic and social point of view. "This requires nothing less than an energy revolution."For the first time warned the IEA in front of a "catastrophic, irreversible damage to the global climate". Since the decline in oil production accelerating, with an increase in consumption by 45 percent, shortages are the oil likely. "To What oil sources of rising demand covered, how much will cost the promotion of this oil and how much consumers pay for it have to be, however, is highly uncertain, perhaps more uncertain than ever." [6]

In the World Energy Outlook 2013 , the IEA recommended stronger efforts on energy efficiency. Was a prerequisite for greater energy efficiency, the global subsidies for fossil fuels abolish, 2012 amounted to 544 billion US dollars, while renewable energy was supported with $ 100 billion. [11]

In the World Energy Outlook 2014 , the IEA once again urged stronger measures for energy efficiency and security of supply and presented for the first time scenarios until 2040 before. The world's energy needs by 2040 to take up 37%, which is generating pressure on the power supply. Coal and oil would grow by then and then stabilize at the level of consumption. Renewable energy would increase quickly, replace the main source of energy due to significantly lower costs and state subsidies, and coal. Only half of the additional demand would be covered by renewable. Renewable, oil, gas and coal would 2040 each represent a quarter of global primary energy consumption. [12]

In World Energy Investment Outlook 2014 , the IEA reported that approximately 1.6 trillion dollars were invested in the energy sector worldwide in 2013, of which more than 1 trillion for fossil fuels and 250 billion for renewable energy . Because the center of gravity of fossil fuels, the world was heading towards a global warming to four degrees. To the two-degree target to achieve, but not a huge financial overhead is needed. "The money needs to be spent differently." Overall, the IEA expects that in the next 20 years Worldwide, 48 trillion needs to be invested in order to maintain security of supply. Annual investments would therefore increase to two trillion. For renewable energy, the IEA calls for worldwide investment of 5.8 trillion dollars by 2035. [13]

In WEO Special Report in 2015 , the IEA called for in advance of the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris in 2015 an ambitious UN climate agreement, after the global greenhouse gas emissions to reach their peak in 2020. Subsidies for fossil fuels should be terminated and investments increased significantly in renewable energy. [14]

Member States

Member States in alphabetical order are:

  1. Australia
  2. Belgium
  3. Denmark
  4. Germany
  5. Estonia
  6. Finland
  7. France
  8. Greece
  9. Great Britain
  10. Ireland
  11. Italy
  12. Japan
  13. Canada
  14. Luxembourg
  15. Netherlands
  16. New Zealand
  17. Norway
  18. Austria
  19. Poland
  20. Portugal
  21. Spain
  22. Sweden
  23. Switzerland
  24. Slovakia
  25. South Korea
  26. Czech Republic
  27. Turkey
  28. Hungary
  29. USA

Criticism

The IEA has repeatedly criticized for its dramatic false predictions. The possible potential of renewable energy sources would systematically small expected and underestimated oil price higher prices. So the IEA predicted in 2004 an oil price of 22 US dollars per barrel for 2011. The oil price was, however, in the meantime (in July 2008) at more than 140 US dollars per barrel and the end of 2014 at around 65 US dollars per barrel. [ 15]

The development of renewable energies would underestimate. So the trend scenario of the World Energy Outlook 2011 take the renewable energy in 2035 worldwide a share of only 15 percent of the energy supply. The potential of renewable energy would systematically underestimated, overestimated the costs of expansion. [16] [17] [18] , the IEA estimates for the growth of renewable energies remain more conservative Even in the following predictions. [19] Several reports of IEA had, for example, the market growth of photovoltaics significantly underestimated. In the World Energy Outlook 2015, demolition of the market growth of photovoltaics is assumed; Thus the future additional construction would fall below the rate of, 2013. Several experts criticized this assumption as unrealistic. [20]

A 2015 study published in the Energy Watch Group and the Lappeenranta University of Technology held that the IEA has underestimated the growth of photovoltaics and wind energy regularly between 1994 and, 2014. The given by the IEA in 2010 projections for PV for the year 2024 were thus achieved in January 2015 (180 GW), which exceeds the IEA forecast for 2015 by the factor. 3 The wind capacity of 2010 exceeded the projections made ​​in 2002 by 260%, and the predictions of 2005 by 104%. The IEA forecasts of wind power for the year 2030 were therefore already achieved 20 years earlier. Similarly, the IEA has overestimated the importance of coal, oil and nuclear power regularly. So the IEA, despite a decline of nuclear power unchanged from an annual growth of about 10 GW in the next decade from. [21]

Overall German energy policy

In its Country Report 2013, the IEA judges the German energy policy, the renewable energy law had proved "a very effective tool for the dissemination of renewable energy, particularly electricity generation through biomass, wind energy and photovoltaics. In addition, it has proven to be successful in reducing costs, as evidenced in a particular degree to the reduction in feed-in tariffs for solar power, to which it came to the rapid expansion of this technology in the past four years in response. "

In addition, the report notes:

"Germany needs to [...] continue to develop cost-effective market-oriented concepts to accompany the expected expansion of the supply-dependent renewables. In addition to the costs and benefits fairly and transparently, are distributed with special emphasis on households on all market participants. The expansion of renewable energies must be done in the future in parallel with the timely development of transmission and distribution networks. In addition, we need a stable regulatory framework in order to ensure long-term financing opportunities for the network operators. It is also important to continue to watch Germany's capacity to meet the peak load requirements exactly in the medium term.